Subacute and Subchronic Oral Toxicity Assessments of the Aqueous Extract of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn Leaves in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

O. O. Elemo(1), I. A. Oreagba(2), A. A. Akinyede(3), I. O. Ishola(4),


(1) Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.
(2) Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.
(3) Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.
(4) Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.
Corresponding Author

Abstract


Background: Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. is a promising medicinal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of constipation, infections, respiratory diseases, skin lesions, malaria, and epilepsy.

Objective: This study evaluated the toxicity profile of the aqueous extract of E. heterophylla leaves in female Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and

Methods: The toxicity assessment of the aqueous extract of E. heterophylla leaves used the repeated dose 28 and 90-day studies. The rats were orally administered the aqueous extract of E. heterophylla leaves at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. The parameters evaluated included body weight gain, haematological and biochemical parameters. Histological sections of organs were also examined. Statistical analysis of results was done using analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results: At the end of the subacute and subchronic toxicity studies, a significant increase (p<0.001, p<0.0001) was observed in the food consumption of rats. Subchronic administration of the extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased (p<0.001, p<0.0001) the body weight of rats at the end of the study. There was also a significant elevation (p<0.05, p<0.01) in aspartate transaminase and platelets, and a significant decrease (p<0.001) in triglycerides. The histology of the liver showed mild clusters of inflammatory cells and cyst observed in the ovarian follicles at 200 mg/kg.

Conclusion: The results of this study show some evidence of toxicity in the liver and ovaries on long-term administration of the aqueous extract of E. heterophylla leaves. This suggests need for caution with long-term use of the extract in females. Keywords: Toxicity, Euphorbia heterophylla, Biochemical analysis, Haematological parameters, Sprague Dawley rats.

Keywords


Toxicity, Euphorbia heterophylla, Biochemical analysis, Haematological parameters, Sprague Dawley rats

References


Background: Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. is a promising medicinal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of constipation, infections, respiratory diseases, skin lesions, malaria, and epilepsy.

Objective: This study evaluated the toxicity profile of the aqueous extract of E. heterophylla leaves in female Sprague Dawley rats.

Materials and Methods: The toxicity assessment of the aqueous extract of E. heterophylla leaves used the repeated dose 28 and 90-day studies. The rats were orally administered the aqueous extract of E. heterophylla leaves at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. The parameters evaluated included body weight gain, haematological and biochemical parameters. Histological sections of organs were also examined. Statistical analysis of results was done using analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results: At the end of the subacute and subchronic toxicity studies, a significant increase (p<0.001, p<0.0001) was observed in the food consumption of rats. Subchronic administration of the extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased (p<0.001, p<0.0001) the body weight of rats at the end of the study. There was also a significant elevation (p<0.05, p<0.01) in aspartate transaminase and platelets, and a significant decrease (p<0.001) in triglycerides. The histology of the liver showed mild clusters of inflammatory cells and cyst observed in the ovarian follicles at 200 mg/kg.

Conclusion: The results of this study show some evidence of toxicity in the liver and ovaries on long-term administration of the aqueous extract of E. heterophylla leaves. This suggests need for caution with long-term use of the extract in females. Keywords: Toxicity, Euphorbia heterophylla, Biochemical analysis, Haematological parameters, Sprague Dawley rats.


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